The Earth is Not Alone – Space Documentary HD


The earth is not alone in the last few years
Scientists have found that our planet is just one of billions out there in the Milky Way galaxy
There’s a really decent chance that there are more planets in the galaxy than there actually are stars
We’re now scouring these planets for evidence of atmospheres
liquid water
of life itself
We are going to know where in the night sky you can point and find another earth
We have a scientific method to actually determine whether there is life on another planet another
earth
Alien life the truth is out there, but are we ready for it?
The earth gives us the blueprint for life as we know it
The Sun warms our oceans creating the perfect environment for all scales of life
From the very smallest to the Giants that eat them
Mountains
planes
and forests teen with plants and animal species and
It’s all cocooned in a thick atmosphere that nurtures and protects for us. It’s paradise
20 years ago a group of scientists decided to find out if there were other paradises out there
so-called exoplanets orbiting the stars that light up our night sky
Just in the last decade we’ve had this explosion in the discovery of these exoplanets
Which has revolutionized the whole field of astronomy
The early days of exoplanet hunting turned up enormous jupiter-sized planets by the boatload
These hot gas, each iins proved easy to find but hostile to life as we know it
Now though new telescopes and technologies have allowed astronomers to target smaller planets
Earth-sized ones and the stunning results have transformed the way we see our place in the universe
We now know something precious that our planet Earth is not unique. It’s not even rare. There are
Tons hoards flocks if you will of other earth-like planets out there fluttering around the other stars
Some stars probably have multiple earths orbiting them. That’s how common earth-like planets are
We owe this exoplanet explosion to a Space Telescope called Kepler the
Kepler space telescope is an observatory in space that is staring at one spot in the sky. It’s looking at roughly
150,000 stars and it’s looking for the tell-tale sign of
Planets orbiting those stars then every time the planet passes in front of the star
it’ll block a little bit of that star light and if you plot the amount of light you get from the star it drops and
Then goes back up as the planet passes
In just four years scientists have detected over a thousand exoplanets just from their shadows
But Kepler has a problem. It can’t tell if the shadow is made by a giant gassy planet hostile to life
or a potentially habitable earth-like planet
What we’re measuring when a when a planet passes in front of its host star is what is the area of the planet
Relative to the area of the star that it’s passing in front of it’s a it’s a ratio basically
But Jupiter sized planets crossing giant stars full Kepler
Because they block the same fraction of light as earth sized planets crossing smaller stars
To prove a planet is earth sized you first need to measure the size of its star using the world’s biggest telescopes
But that’s time-consuming expensive and it creates a huge
exoplanet backlog
But astronomer Kavon Stassen has come up with an ingenious shortcut by turning the raw Kepler data into sound
what the Kepler telescope directly measures and the data that we use is
small changes in brightness that a star produces due to the flickering
Arising from the boiling and roiling motions of gas at its surface
what we can do then is take that light flickering data and
Transform it in a sound studio for example into audio frequencies
And so then we can represent with sound what we’re actually detecting with light
The bigger the star the more its surface boils with activity
Making big stars flicker more powerfully
Converted to sound this boiling becomes a deafening hiss
Well, let’s listen to some stars, okay, can we hear the red giant star please? I’m gonna bring up the volume here
This is a very large star very low density
and so that large amount of hiss is the result of
vigorous boiling and churning at the surface of this large red giant star
Can we get the dwarf star, please?
On smaller stars sunspots dominate the sound profile creating a low-frequency drone
Actually sounds like a series of clicks
But below clicks lies the faint hiss Kavon needs to size the star
Underneath it at a very low level is a little bit of hiss
That little bit of is actually the light flickering that we’re interested in
By accurately measuring the level of this background hiss Kavon can work out the size of the star
In this case, it’s around the same size as our star the Sun
Cave-ins work could be the breakthrough
exoplanet hunters have been hoping for
It’s cheap. The results are practically instantaneous
And once you know the size of the star
Figuring out the size of the planets casting shadows over
It is child’s play it it feels like a very privileged time to be a scientist to be an astronomer
Working in this area and contributing to the hunt for the next earth. Here. We are actually
discovering these worlds by the hundreds and now on the cusp of
Being able to identify the next earth
Astronomers suspect there could be tens of billions of rocky earth-like planets in the Milky Way
Places where perhaps life has gotten a foothold
But life as we know it requires water
How can scientists possibly find this miracle substance on planets?
light-years away
Water divides our living world goes with it prosper
Those bounts suffer
Remarkably the water we drink today contains the same atoms as the water dinosaurs drank 100 million years ago
It’s the same water that formed clouds over the earlier
4 billion years ago and every organism that has ever existed on earth
Has used this single ration of water as the biochemical powerhouse that keeps it alive
On earth all life requires liquid water to grow and reproduce
It’s the common ecological requirement for life liquid water is just so good for getting evolution going
Molecules can dissolve in the water actually interact with each other for more complex chains. It does it with charge
There’s positive charges and negative charges separated between the hydrogen and the oxygen in h2o
Those charges break apart the hydrocarbons the carbon-based molecules that persist everywhere in nature
Now that’s very rare. Hardly. Any other liquids do that?
So liquid water is a natural starting place when you look out into the universe and say what planets could possibly have life
To understand how much liquid water is out there astronomers must first calculate how common water is in all its forms?
Amazingly they find it everywhere they look
Water is incredibly common in its gaseous form. We see water vapor filling the space between the stars
We see it in clouds of material that are actually forming new stars and planets right now
Since water is a fundamental building block of stars and planets exoplanet worlds must surely have it in abundance
But if you’re looking for life
You need to find liquid water and plenty up to find it astronomers take their cue from a fairy tale
Everybody knows the famous story of Goldilocks and the three bears and the the cup of porridge where one was too hot one was too
Cold it was just right
When it comes to cooking up life like a porridge, you need to have an environment. That’s not too hot not too cold
just right and
Traditionally we look for that at a certain distance around a star
At first astronomers based this magical distance known as the Goldilocks zone on the Earth’s orbit around the Sun
But as they found more and more exoplanets, they’ve had to re-evaluate the boundaries from liquid water
There isn’t a single distance. It depends on the brightness of your parents a dim star. You need to be closer
Hot star very bright need to be farther away
Scientists have calculated just how many rocky planets may lie within the Goldilocks zone of their stars
It comes out to over 30 billion
potentially watery world
Even more remarkably
Recent discoveries have shown us. It’s not just planets that can bask in the warmth of the Goldilocks zone
There may be moons
painted blue with oceans –
Most of the planets were finding our big jupiter-sized planets
However, a lot of them were are orbiting roughly where the earth is orbiting the Sun
So even if the planet that we’re finding can’t support life
It could have a moon a moon with an atmosphere that could support life
And the biggest of these rocky moons they resemble our home
There could be billions upon billions of XA means out there and even perhaps countless paradises teeming with life
David kipping searches for exomoons by looking for double dips in the brightness of distant stars
We look for XA means in a very similar way to the way that we look for planets
by looking for them transit their host star
Now if that planet had a moon then we should expect to have one big dip
Due to the planet and then one smaller deputy to the left or to the right due to the new
Habitable exomoons may play host to one of the most spectacular sights in the universe
Imagine a warm rocky world just like arrow with oceans mountains
But in the sky a massive ringed planet with a fiery sister moon shooting hot magma into space
Exoplanets, and now the vast potential of
exomoons
Int a galaxy filled with the possibilities for life
But a rocky surface and liquid oceans may not be enough
Biology needs the breath of life
air
Backlit by the Sun a halo appears around the earth a
pale blue ring of light our atmosphere and
We oh, it’s everything
The Earth’s atmosphere provides the gases that fuel the biochemistry of advanced life
But it also protects the oceans from the full fury of the sun’s rays
preventing the water from boiling away into space
Without an atmosphere there would be no wind. No rain. No
fresh water and probably
No life
Atmospheres are absolutely essential for life
Take a look at the planet Earth and you realize that just like the skin of the Apple?
The skin of the Apple preserves the Apple. Well the atmosphere of our planet
Preserves the oceans and makes possible the presence of life as we know it
Scientists in search of living exoplanets. Hope to detect the thin gassy envelope that should surround these alien worlds
To do it. They’re turning to the power rainbows
In the same way that water splits Sun lights into a rainbow
astronomers use instruments to split starlight into a band of colours called a spectrum
It’s one of the oldest tricks and science
and one of the most revealing
Several hundred years ago scientists first began to take something like a prism and put it in front of their telescope
So he started taking the light from stars like the Sun and actually spreading it out into a spectrum
And what they saw was kind of surprising. So instead of seeing andreen continuous rainbow of light
They saw that rainbow but they saw these dark lines superimposed on top
Each chemical elements of the star’s atmosphere absorbs different parts of the spectrum
creating signature dark bands
For instance up at the top. There’s a pair of lines in the yellow part of the spectrum which are due to sodium
Like a DNA profile for stars
Spectral analysis has taught us almost everything we know about stars today
But these same lines may hide a marvelous secret
the faint signal of alien atmospheres and
perhaps also
alien life
so the challenge is that these planets are very small and very faint so we can’t actually go and
Directly measure the light emitted from the planet the same way that you go and measure this lovely spectrum for the Sun
Instead we have to rely on more indirect methods
So one indirect way of doing that is to wait until the planet passes in front of the star
When the light of a star passes through an EXO atmosphere
The gases that surround the planet should stamp their own faint lines on the star’s spectrum
So as we watched the light from the star transmitted through that atmosphere its atmosphere is going to act like a little filter
so a part of the star light is going to pass through that atmosphere and we’re gonna see that
In printing extra lines on it, which are due to the planet’s atmosphere
So that change in the spectrum tells us something about the properties the planet’s atmosphere
The one chemical astronomers most want to find is oxygen
Because only life can produce enough oxygen to be easily detected
It’s a so-called bio signature
The race is now on to find bio signatures in the atmospheres of rocky exoplanets
And while some groups look for rainbows
Indirectly others are tackling the challenge head-on
All right
Then Oppenheimer is part of a team trying to take direct photographs of exoplanets
using massive ground-based telescopes
We’re within minutes of taking our first long exposure and I hope it’s good
The greatest challenge to imaging exoplanets is the blinding light of the parent star
Which shines tens of millions of times brighter than the planet itself?
The trick is to stop the light of the star from entering the telescope sensors by blocking it using a series of
Masks and lenses called a coronagraph
Right now we’re standing right?
Underneath the telescope’s primary mirror and the light comes through a hole in the middle of the mirror and goes into this
Crazy box here, which is full of optics motors
Sensors and electronics that all allow us to precisely control the star light that’s coming through the system
Using state-of-the-art software they manipulate the coronagraph to black out the unwanted light under good conditions
We can actually carve
Dark holes into this image of the star so that we can see really faint things in those regions
coronagraphs present an intriguing problem though
errors within the optics produce tiny flares of starlight called speckles that look just like
Exoplanets, but van has come up with an ingenious way to tell speckles from planets
So we’ve developed a technique where we exploit an aspect of speckles
Which is that they change position in the image, depending on what color you take your image at?
So Ben takes the same image of the star through different color filters and
Runs them like a movie the speckles appear to move across the screen
But the planets stay stuck still allowing Ben to easily pick them out
And so I’d like to point out that there is a little thing right here
That if you watch for you’re careful, you’ll notice that it doesn’t move and the speckles are washing over it
This stationary blob is a candidate exoplanet
And below it and to the left is a second. They both appear to orbit a star around 200 light-years from the earth
Just a decade ago capturing an image like this through a telescope was unthinkable
But today thanks to the ingenuity of astronomers like Ben we have hundreds
And by analyzing the light for these distant worlds scientists can work out their chemical composition
And potentially the fingerprints of life
At this point we’re studying much larger planets
Gaseous things like Jupiter that most likely don’t have any kind of life
Like we know it but that’s a first step and we’re going to fainter and smaller and smaller
Planets as time goes on as we develop this technology
In the not-too-distant future
Scientists may be able to simply scan a star for earth-like planets and find the signature of life there
We can look right at the light from a little planet around its distant star and that opens up a whole range of possibilities
For us to not just detect the planet but to study the planet
I mean this all sounds like science fiction, but there is a reality to this
We have a scientific method to actually determine whether there is life on another planet
Life is one thing
intelligent life
another all together that requires
Billions of years and a powerful force field like the one we owe our lives to every day
If an alien astronomer were to file a report on our home solar system they might make a surprising observation
Because of all the eight planets that orbit the Sun they could easily conclude that – not one were suitable for life
It’s an easy mistake to make because the Sun has two planets within its Goldilocks zone the Earth and Mars
Both planets have surfaces warm enough for liquid water to pool on
But while the earth is blessed with warm liquid oceans
Ours is dry and dead
The one crucial difference between these two planets could be the key to finding truly habitable exoplanets a
magnetic shield
Our Sun is constantly hurling deadly radiation out towards us
Only our magnetic shield the magnetosphere saves us
Without it the solar wind would blow our atmosphere away and without an atmosphere liquid water could not exist on the surface
In order to have liquid water not only do you need the right temperature, but you need the right pressure
You know if there were no atmosphere here right now
Even at the same temperature we are today all of the water would boil off into vapor immediately
So where does the Earth’s magnetosphere come from and why does it Mars have one?
Actually in the past both Earth and Mars had magnetospheres
But Mars lost its around 4 billion years ago and with it the potential for life
Both the earth and Mars were born into a realm of violence
Asteroids smashed into their surfaces turning rock and metal into a molten mass
As they started to cool a solid crust formed on the surface but the molten metal below
Churned as the planets turn
Inducing a magnetic field which rose high up above the surface of both planets
At the same time active volcanoes pumped gas into the space around each planet
Protected by the newly formed magnetic field these gases built up into thick atmospheres
Creating the air pressure for liquid water to run on the surface
For over a hundred million years both Mars and Earth were warm wet paradises primed for life to take off
Then quite suddenly
Mars’s magnetic protection
Disappeared the solar wind blew its atmosphere into space and its oceans boiled away leaving the dry
Sterile, red rock we see today
Mars is fundamental problem is is that it’s smaller than Earth and because it’s smaller the internal core of Mars cooled down and
Solidified and once it becomes a solid metal. There’s no more magnetic field the magnetic field shuts off essentially and
the atmosphere therefore is vulnerable to both energy and radiation from the Sun and the rest of the galaxy and
Probably just blew off
Whatever life was on there, at least on the surface was now completely exposed
All rocky planets will one day lose their magnetospheres as their cores cool and turn solid
So to know if an exoplanet is alive you need to work out if its magnetosphere is still active but
Magnetospheres are tough to measure because they are unbelievably weak
The earth has a magnetic field of approximately half a Gauss
Which when you think about it is actually really weak. Our fridge magnets are about a hundred Gauss. They’re much stronger
Excel planets are too far away for us to measure such weak magnetic fields directly
But there is an indirect method
When electrons in the solar wind interacts with a planet’s magnetosphere they emit radio waves that beam out into space
Turning the planet into a giant radio beacon
Astronomers like of geniu hoped to use these signals to spot habitable exoplanets
Not only that the frequency of the signal should also tell her how big the planet is
If we’re looking for the magnetic signature in radio waves of a giant
planet say a hot Jupiter
We expect it to have a strong magnetic field and therefore it would have a high frequency
And around 100 megahertz kind of where the limit of this radio is
However, a weaker field like Earth’s requires us to go down to lower and lower frequencies
So instead of a hundred megahertz we go down to ten megahertz
But hunting for exoplanets at 10 megahertz presents a unique challenge
Because the Earth’s own magnetic sphere creates a deafening radio roar at that frequency
So to find alien Earth’s using radio requires a dish in space
When we want to look for magneto spheres of extrasolar planets, we really need to get outside of the earth-moon system
In order to get away from all the radio frequencies that are bouncing around the earth
With a slew of new technologies and upcoming technologies
Scientists are edging ever closer to the ultimate prize
Finding a second earth
I wouldn’t be surprised if we have that data about an earth and about life on it around another star in 10 or 15 years
I’m hoping to see that soon
Using shadows
Rainbows and now radio we finally have the tools to detect a planet just like our own
But in the rush to find the Earth’s identical twin are we missing something big
What if earth is an outlier a freakishly lucky place on the very fringes of habitability
Could there be another kind of planet out there even better for life?
For years astronomers have scanned the heavens for planets that could sustain life
They’ve faced their search on the earth seeking the exact same conditions an exact same size I
Think right now there is a huge focus to finding earth-like
Planets now whether or not there actually is life there. That is another question all together
But after 20 years of searching for an earth clone, the exoplanet hunters may be about to switch targets
Recent observations have revealed a brand new class of planet. It’s one that may eclipse our own home
We’ve learned something in the last few years that really shocked us with
The Kepler space porn telescope we have found hordes of planets that are a little bigger than the earth
We never imagined that there would be such planets. In fact in our own solar system
There are no planets between the size of the earth and the next largest planet that of Uranus and Neptune
Astronomers call these mysterious planets super Earths
Super earths are about three to five times the mass of the earth, and there’s nothing like that here
We don’t know what they’re like, it’s an entirely alien sort of planet
In just the last few years
Astronomers have begun to imagine the conditions on this new class of planet and they’ve come to a startling conclusion
super earths could be
super habitable
There are probably planets out there that are even more hospitable for life
Planets that have even more chemicals necessary to create the organic materials that create life
Conditions that make it more likely to get life off the ground
Imagine a rocky planet twice the size of the earth
Dramatic volcanism on the surface betrays a vast heart of fire that beats within its core
We expect that a heavier earth will be more geologically active
that the increased amount of
Geothermal heat within the super earth will lead to stronger
motions of the magma underneath the crust
Belching volcanoes dot the surface of this super earth
Their gases feed a super thick atmosphere and help to regulate a super stable climate
Many times life on Earth was nearly extinguished for example once upon a time the earth was snowball earth
completely covered in ice
maybe in these other planets there are earth in which
Snowball earth never happened that the climate was always stable and temperate
The grip of gravity is three times stronger here than we’re used to
It pulls mountain ranges down to a third the height, they’d be on earth
Gravity also flattens the ocean bed making shallower seas filled with volcanic island chains and
The nutrient-rich waters that surround these archipelagos provide the perfect conditions for life
In these other planets perhaps they have conditions which would make DNA get off the ground much earlier and flourish much more quickly
Finally our super earth may be protected by a super magnetosphere the
Magnetic field strength is a condition both of the mass of the planet as well as its
rotation speed and so it is quite likely that a planet that is a couple of times bigger than the earths would
Be able to develop a stronger magnetic field may shield the planet even better than our magnetic field shields us
Having a stronger magnetosphere would be a distinct advantage for life on a super earth
Surrounding the Milky Way’s most plentiful kind of star the M dwarf or red dwarf star
Red dwarf habitable zones are much closer in than the earth is to the Sun because their host star is so dim
it’s as if you took the terrestrial planets in our own solar system and zapped it with a shrink ray gun and
Shrunk them down to orbital periods that are less than about 30 days meaning that they’re very close to their stars
Some astronomers believe these planets are at risk from solar activity such as deadly flares
But a super-earth with a super protective magnetosphere
May well resist these deadly rays
allowing life to flourish under a psychedelic sky full of swirling Aurora’s
If one was standing on a super-earth we would see the Aurora come down to lower latitudes
Might get different colors
If I had the opportunity to travel to one of these exoplanets, I would snap that up pretty quickly
Most intriguing of all if life does exist on a red dwarf super earth, it could be home to the longest-lived
civilizations in the entire universe the
Advantage of the M Dwarfs is that they last for much longer and if you had a super earth then keeping a strong magnetic field
Going for billions and billions of years
Especially now around a red dwarf that is going to exist for billions and billions of years
You might be in that perfect system where life can exist and evolve into even more complex beings than us
We’re getting so close
Our local neighborhood of stars teens with red dwarfs bursting with the potential for advanced life
But they’re also
Cosmic killers out there lurking in our galaxy primed to wipe out life on a regular basis
Is anywhere safe?
The exoplanet revolution is in full swing
the Kepler space telescope has scanned our local neighborhood of stars for planets and it’s found them by the
thousands
For a long time we didn’t know if the other stars in our galaxy had planets and for thousands of years
There was no way to answer that question
Finally now with modern technology we can do that and to our surprise we found they are extremely common
From Kepler’s small sample astronomers believe there could be tens of billions of rocky earth-like
planets throughout the Milky Way where life may already be thriving
But how many of these countless worlds has held on to this life long enough for intelligence to evolve
The answer surprisingly may depend on a planet’s galactic zip code
The universe is not a happy safe place the universe wants to kill us
It’s it’s incredibly violent out there
There are solar flares and supernovae and black holes and colliding galaxies and all these really amazingly dangerous and violent events
It’s actually kind of amazing that we’re here at all
In order to develop
Advanced intelligent life and exoplanets may have to avoid these cosmic killers for over three billion years
If we look at the history of the earth the first thing that happens
That’s important is the origin of life right away very quickly, but then nothing for a long time
You have nothing but microbes stopping on the earth
For the first two and a half billion years the earth was ruled by
single-celled Beauty
Multicellular life has only been around for a billion years
fish for 500 million
mammals for 200 million and
Modern humans have only walked the earth for the last
200,000 years
The lesson is clear it takes a long time to cook up intelligent life
But most planets in the Milky Way don’t have that kind of time
Astronomers believe that a planet’s position within a galaxy may determine if it gets hit by global extinction events
There’s an idea of a habitable zone for a galaxy and it’s in analogy to the habitable zone around stars
Stars too close to the galactic center are in the firing line from their violent neighbors
Which frequently blast them with deadly high-energy radiation?
In the middle of a galaxy we have a lot of
Bright stars and young stars and maybe even supernova going off. And so there’s a very harsh radiation field. That’s not good for life
Fired up by the supermassive black hole that sits at the center of the Milky Way
this cosmic Killzone stretches out around
8,000 light years from the galactic center and extends out along the densely packed spiral arms
Any planets that exist within this zone are likely to have their surfaces regularly scrubbed clean of life
Fortunately for us our home star the Sun sits in a relatively empty
quiet zone between two of the galaxy’s spiral arms
So there’s this idea that there’s a band in the middle of the galaxy
That’s the Galactic habitable zone where you don’t have too many stars going off. You don’t have it too many supernovae
So it’s quiet in that way. Those might be great places for complex life
These green zones are like the suburbs of the Milky Way galaxy
They’re sheltered from the worst of the galaxy’s radiation
It’s here that earth-like worlds will have the luxury of long uninterrupted
periods for life to take hold and develop into more complex forms and eventually perhaps
intelligent life like us
The Galactic habitable zone is no more than a fledgling theory
But if it’s true, it reduces the number of places where advanced life could flourish in the Milky Way
The good news is those places should be near us and aliens more likely to be on our doorstep and
With our technology getting better every day. It surely won’t be long before we find them
I
Think in 20 years time I’m gonna be able to look up into the night sky and say there really is
Another place. I could stand like this and feel at home
Suddenly we humans will realize for the first time that there are other cultures other civilizations probably other religions
Out there among the stars and we are just one member of a grand galactic
tribe
to have
cousins that we one day may communicate with seems to me to be potentially one of the greatest developments that humanity will ever ever
experience and
If that isn’t worth doing I don’t know. What is
All systems are go for entry descent landing Jim, bye-bye
At the dawn of the 21st century space agencies in Europe and America
Began, making plans to land the first humans on Mars
But manned missions to the red planet have been proposed before
For some Mars holds the answers to mankind’s future in space
Others say Mars is too far too dangerous and too expensive for humans to explore
And in a world torn by troubles
Some say there is no need or will for mankind to reach into space anymore
More than 30 years after the last Apollo astronaut walked on the moon
the American manned space program
Seems to have lost its way
Unable to reach beyond even in low-earth orbit
We’ve got a problem NASA has been literally going around in circles with its space program for the past 30 years
Astronautica engineer, dr. Robert Zubrin
Has been arguing for years that sending humans to Mars is the mission the space program needs
It’s time that we set goals for NASA that were worthy of the risks of human spaceflight
Mars is the next logical step in our space program
It’s the challenge that’s been staring us in the face for the past 30 years. It’s the planet that’s most likely earth
It’s the planet that has on it. The resources needed to support life and therefore someday technological civilization
It’s the planet that will provide us with the answer as to whether life is
prevalent in the universe or exclusive to the earth and it’s the planet that will give us the critical test whether humanity
Can break out of the planet of our birth and become a spacefaring species
In the early 1990s Zubrin was the head of the Mars direct program at Martin Marietta astronautics
His team developed a mission to Mars that could be done at a fraction of NASA’s projected costs
Using only existing technology Zubrin argues that the first steps on Martian soil could be made within 10 years
There is absolutely nothing in this that is beyond our technology
We are not ready to send humans to Mars right now, we don’t know how to keep them alive
There are people out there who say we can go to Mars tomorrow
One of my requirements one of NASA’s requirements is that if we send humans to Mars we bring them back alive
For the past 15 years
Zubrin and his colleagues have waged a campaign to convince society and the political class that humans on Mars
Should be the goal for NASA now
This is the story of a cold neighboring planet and the debate over whether man’s fate is tied to the red world
It’s the story of an engineer’s journey and the Battle of ideas over which direction in space will truly benefit mankind
We’re at a crossroads today
We either muster the courage to go or we risk the possibility of stagnation in the case
The victor in this debate could determine the fate of mankind?
Will we become a spacefaring species?
Will we live on more than one planet
In the winter of 2003 the Chinese put their first tycoon all in space
The Chinese space administration plans to begin a manned program of moon exploration by 2017
The european space agency has outlined a plan for humans to the moon by 2024 and to mars by 2033
And the Russians building on years of experience are conducting tests for long-duration Mars missions
In America with the impending retirement of the shuttle fleet in the completion of the International Space Station
The brochure administration announced in 2004 the constellation program
On the moon a plan that would return Americans to the moon by 2020
But the program was never fully funded was eventually cancelled
In 2010 the Obama
administration announced its vision for NASA and human Mars exploration by the mid 2030s
I believe we can send humans to orbit Mars and return them safely to earth and
landing on Mars will follow
And I expect to be around to see it
With a new timeline for humans to Mars sometime after 2035 and with administration’s
Changing every four or eight years. It is far from certain that such a plan will be realized
Twenty years earlier the first president Bush also proposed a long interview man exploration program
under great fanfare
The program quietly died in Congress a few years later
if
You want to go to Mars? You cannot do it in 30 years you can’t do in 20s
You’ve got to do it in ten years or less from program start or you’re more or less guaranteeing
political failure
to date only the Apollo moon program
Which was announced in 1961 and had men on the moon eight years later has succeeded in getting astronauts beyond low Earth orbit
I
Was 5 when Sputnik flew
and while to the adults
Sputnik was a terrifying event to me as a child who was already reading science fiction
it was exhilarating because it meant that this possibility of a spacefaring future was going to be real and
I was 9 when he gave his speech committing us to the moon
I
Grew up
During the 60s
When it was mercury was Gemini Apollo?
Every month NASA was doing something more impressive than in a month before we were gonna be on the moon by 1970
Mars by 1980 Saturn by 1990 Alpha Centauri by the year
2000 we were moving out and I wanted to be part of that
And so I got myself a scientific education, but then in the early 70s, it’s all collapsed
We achieved the first part of that program moon by 1970 but the Nixon
Administration shut down the rest and we did not move out into space and for a while. I accepted that
grudgingly it became a science teacher but then in the early 80s something hit me and I said I’m
Not going to accept myself
Doing less than what I had dreamed of doing when I was a boy
Zubin went back to graduate school getting advanced degrees in engineering into aerospace
He then went on to work at Martin Marietta, which later became Lockheed Martin designing interplanetary missions
It was here that zubrin’s obsession with the red planet began to take hold
While at Martin in the 1990s Zubrin and his colleagues developed a plan for sending humans to Mars
That changed NASA’s thinking on the issue
But the plan has languished on the drawing boards ever since
Now as president of the Mars Society Zubrin is at center stage in the debate over the future of manned spaceflight
Known as a smart visionary scientist. He’s authored several books on exploring space
And is the self-appointed spokesman for the possibility of colonizing Mars?
Mars is where the futurist Mars is the closest planet to the earth that has honored all the resources needed to support life and therefore
Technological civilization it has water it has carbon it has nitrogens. It has a 24-hour day
It has a complex geological history that has created mineral org, it has sources of geothermal energy
Mars is a place we can settle
One reason for such optimism over a frozen world like Mars is
Evidence that two billion years ago Mars was a much warmer and wetter place
We think that at one time in the ancient past Mars was very similar to the condition of early Earth
This Martian war mage lasted for over a billion years and could have been a suitable environment for the development of life
If we go to Mars and find evidence of a second Genesis on Mars, I think we can conclude that
The universe is full of life
We can probably conclude that on some planets that life evolves to more complex forms, and I think we’d be reasonable to conclude that
Intelligence could also emerge on some planets as well. It really does answer the question. Are we alone?
That to me is a question that transcends science. It’s a philosophical
Societal as well as scientific question to me. That’s the big prize. That’s what why Mars is interesting
That’s why human exploration makes sense
Space programs are often criticized for the huge sums of money. They require
although the American space program is less than 1% of the federal budget a
Human mission to Mars may have to wait for better times
There are those who say then we have many problems to deal with here on earth and we need to postpone ventures
Such as the human exploration on Mars until these problems are solved
well, there are many problems in Spain in 1492 and
there still are
There are problems that need to be dealt with here on earth and should be dealt with
But we also have to think of the future
We also have to think about opening up new volumes in human history
I
Believe that it’s essential for a positive human future that humanity expand into space
The greatest value that we got out of Apollo was the creation of intellectual capital through the inspiring of
Millions to go into science and engineering to be part of the great adventure of human expansion into space
There’s a phrase that happened with the Apollo program
Which was if we can go to the moon we can
And then everybody’s filled in whatever they were interested in build mass transit cure cancer do this through that
The point is it did give us a sense that we could accomplish great things. It did bring out the best of us
We excited a generation of engineers and scientists
The generation that built the computers and cell phones and all the technology everybody uses today
It takes for granted if we send humans to Mars as our goal, we’ll get millions of new scientists that will create new
inventions new
Industries. This is the enormous payback and we can get it if we set the kind of challenge that will inspire the news
To Zubrin civilizations like people thrive on challenge
Decay without it. We have everything we have today because of our predecessors
who had the courage to leave the world of the known and go out into the wilderness and build new cities and
If we stop being people like that
Then we will hand down much less to our posterity
That our ancestors handed down to us
So there’s the choice in life one either grows or one decays grow or die I think we should grow
History proves that we have never lost
by pressing the limits of our frontier
In the summer of 1989 the first president Bush announced the space exploration initiative
Directing NASA to draw up long-term plans to get humans back to the moon and begin developing a program of manned Mars
exploration
At Martin Marietta Zubrin and his colleagues looked forward to moving NASA’s Space Program
outwards after two decades in low-earth orbit of
Course, we were very excited when Bush made his call saying that he was making a national commitment to implement such a program
NASA assembled a large team to take on the space initiative
In 90 days the team developed a 30-year plan that required an enormous buildup of space infrastructure
What the NASA bureaucracy?
decided to do was basically
Design the most complex mission they possibly could in order to make sure that everyone’s pet technology would remain mission-critical
Which is the exact opposite of the correct way to do engineering
First NASA would triple the size of the planned space station and add enormous hangars as well as free-floating fuel depots checkout
Docs and crew stations then on the moon. They would construct more shipbuilding facilities
bases and depots
Next the moon crew would construct the Mars ship a huge craft dubbed by its detractors as Battlestar
Galactica this ship would carry everything to Mars over an 18-month flight
Once in Mars orbit, a small group would descend to the surface
Spend a few days then plant a flag in the ground and go home
The plan became known as the 90-day report
to those of us at Martin who had been engaged in designing Mars missions when they saw the
Monstrosity of complexity of the 90-day report we were dismayed and it was readily apparent to anyone with any insight that that program would fail
Politically the plan was submitted to Congress the estimated cost
450 billion the legislators went into sticker shock
This would have been the single most expensive program for the United States since World War two
By the end of 1990 Congress had refused all requests for sei funding
When the realization came the sei was doomed Zubrin wrote a memo to his colleagues at Martin Marietta outlining
His problems with the NASA plan and arguing for a more direct approach
Zubrin favored launching a Mars mission directly from the surface of Earth using only existing rocket technology
This negated the need for a lunar base and avoided the complexity and cost of building ships in space
he also objected to NASA’s plan for a short surface stay on Mars a
Mission that would amount to little more than a flag and footprints exercise
To Zubrin we were going to Mars to explore and develop a new world
To maximize surface time Zubrin proposed using a faster flight path known as a conjunction class mission
This would mean a crew could arrive on Mars after only a six-month journey
They would then remain on the Martian surface for a year and a half
This would give the team time to explore a wide area and conduct detailed research about the planet
Then as the earth returned window opens crew would launch from Mars the six-month trip home
Zubrin was convinced that a simplified more robust and cost-effective mission could be designed using these principles
Along with several like-minded colleagues Zubrin decided to ask management at Martin to allow them to design alternative Mars missions
The management approvement and
We formed a team
Was known as the scenario development team of just 12 people from the whole very large Martin company
One team member whose thinking was closely aligned with zubrin’s was David Baker
I went off to my office and said alright
how would I do a Mars mission if I had to pay for it, and I had to go on the ride and
I said well it’s going to be simple. There’s gonna be no on-orbit assembly
I really tried to take everything out of the mission that didn’t absolutely need to be there
While the rest of the team focused on longer-term more traditional mission plans that required on-orbit assembly
Zubrin and Baker decided to collaborate on a mission that could be done near-term
We decided to do Mars the way Lewis and Clark did America
Okay, use local resources travel light live off the land
Zubrin and Baker were convinced that a Mars mission could be launched directly from the ground
The other team members felt this was impossible that the weight of the rocket fuel required for a round trip to Mars
Was so enormous it would render the launch ship impossibly heavy
To solve this problem Zubrin was exploring a radical idea that had been kicked around the aerospace industry since the 1970s
The idea was to produce a methane-oxygen rocket fuel directly from the Martian atmosphere
It was a relatively simple and robust Chemical Engineering procedure that was done commonly in the 1800s the air of the gas life
If the idea worked astronauts could land a relatively light ship with empty tanks
They wouldn’t have to ship all the fuel with them for their return trip
This would radically lower their size and weight
The only problem was methane-oxygen fuel requires a hydrogen component
Hydrogen exists on Mars in the form of h2o but water may be difficult or impossible to extract from the Martian environment
Really the hydrogen was only 5% of the total weight of the methane-oxygen propellant
Being manufactured so you just say, okay
We won’t be pure we all get all of the propellant from Oris will just get 95% of the propellant from Mars
The other 5% of the hydrogen will just bring from Earth
Another fundamental resource that could be extracted from the Martian environment is oxygen
Second processing unit could separate oxygen molecules from the thin carbon dioxide atmosphere
providing breathable air for a Mars crew
If used intelligently
The same resources that make Mars interesting are precisely
What could make it attainable?
Baker and Zubrin had greatly reduced their mission mass
But they still found their ship was too heavy and would require two launches and assembly in space
Then Zubrin hit on an idea
One of the key
Events of the Mars directive element was one morning Bob burst in my office and said I’ve got it the idea that I finally hit
on
In 1989 was that we had split the mission up into two parts and we’d send the return vehicle out first
with its own return propellant plant
So the propellant would be made on Mars before the first astronauts ever left her
With two separate direct Amar’s launches a human crew would have a fully fueled ship waiting for them on the surface of Mars
before they ever left Earth
So Zubrin and Baker had come up with a plan that seemed to accomplish all of their goals, it was relatively inexpensive
Development time was short, they could use existing technology and it allowed for a long stay on the Martian surface
They dubbed their idea Mars direct
Board and Ares rocket is the earth return vehicle or ERV
No one has aboard this ship
It will pave the way for the astronauts who years later. We’ll use the ERV to return to Earth
On its second day the ERV deploys a small nuclear power reactor
The reactor powers a chemical plant inside the ERV
The plant will produce the methane-oxygen rocket fuel for the launch home
Nearby a second robotic rover is guided to a pre-picked landing site for the human crew
it places a radar transponder to help guide the astronauts in the
long journey to land a human being on Mars begins
Three two one engine
Carrying the most skillfully assembled flight team in history four astronauts begin their two and a half year mission to the Red Planet
This will be the first time a human has gone beyond the earth-moon system
250 million miles farther than any person has ever been
To counter the health problems of zero-gravity and to fully acclimate the astronauts to Mars the ship will deploy a weighted tether
attached to the last stage of the spent rocket booster
By thrusting the ship into a rotational spin the counterweight of the rocket will create centrifugal force and
Thus artificial gravity
The crew will be able to live with their feet planted firmly on the floor during their six-month transit
But the hab is not entirely alone on its journey just ahead of it is a second ERV identical to the first
Launched just a few weeks prior to the Harpe. It will prepare the way for a second human crew that will follow two years. Later
It can also function as a backup for the first mission if anything should go wrong
On the sixth month of the flight the crew gaze upon an alien world
This is the new frontier
After days in orbit, unsatisfied with the landing conditions the crew will receive final word from Mission Control on earth
It will be a tense 40 minutes before people back on earth get the signal from Mars and know if everything has gone well
I thought forward down
Contact light okay in this stop
For more than 500 days the astronauts will therefore Mars and
Embark on one of the greatest journeys of discovery
in the history of science
Will they find life or the fossilized remains of past life
Such a discovery could tell us whether our solar system has seen more than one Genesis and
Answer the ultimate question
Are we alone?
In any case these explorers will be learning how feasible the colonization of Mars really is and whether or not mankind
Has a future among the stars
Then when the time comes in the window for Earth return opens crew will climb into their earth return vehicle and head
They will arrive home heroes
the first to stretch the limit of man’s expanse from one planet to another
their names added to the list of great explorers of new worlds
In their footsteps others who follow
What began as a trickle is free to rise into a deluge of humankind sweeping over a once barren land and
Transforming it into a viable new world
When Baker and Zubrin presented Mars direct to their bosses at Martin they expected the worst
To their surprise management was excited about it. They liked the fact that everything needed was relatively simple and near-term
As time went on Martin Marietta embraced Mars direct as their creation and
put Bob and I on an airplane to several NASA centers to present Mars direct and try to build some momentum for
Baker and Zubrin flew to the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama
This had been one of the original design hubs for the Apollo moon landings
But recently many of the engineers had become demoralized by the failure of NASA’s sei program
tag-team style Baker and Zubrin presented their alternative mission architecture
The response was three the old-school Apollo crowd embraced it
This was a plan that actually made sense and was within reach Baker and I gave a number of briefings
The first was at the Marshall Space Flight Center
Next was a chance. These people were incredibly excited
Over the next few weeks Zubrin and Baker were flown around the country pitching to all branches of NASA and everywhere
They went the response was electric
The plan was standing up to scrutiny and groups all over NASA were converting to Mars direct
their tour culminated in a public presentation to the National Space Society
The crowd gave the two aerospace engineers a standing ovation
A week later. The story was in newspapers around the country
But a counter-attack was beginning to form within NASA the space station teams and many in the advanced propulsion groups were against the idea
Since Mars direct didn’t need their programs, they felt under threat as quickly as doors opened for Zubrin and Baker. They began to close
NASA didn’t want to pursue a Mars mission at that time
They didn’t want to be derailed by a bunch of Mars fanatics that thought that their idea of what NASA should do should overwhelm
What NASA thought NASA should do what we did in Mars direct was?
Literally come up with the leanest solution
the one that involved the least spending on an assortment of technologies and infrastructural elements including for example
we made no use whatsoever of the International Space Station and
So people involved in all those programs were very upset because we were showing they shouldn’t go to Mars without
Their program being required they felt that we were justifying them
the NASA administration rejected Mars direct
The two engineers were outside is again
but Zubrin remained determined
Bob had grabbed hold of it and
I could see that it was his and no matter what I did he was gonna do what he was going to do and
he was going to be a proponent for it and push it and
I really saw my role sort of evaporate
It’s a little bit like being a dim planet next to a bright star around him in terms of his
Enthusiasm and you really can’t compete with that. All you can do is decide how you’re going to deal with it
By February 1991 Baker. Quit Martin to start his own firm
Zubrin battled on for the next year and a half Zubrin tried to get NASA to pay attention giving speeches writing papers
But Mars directs time seemed to have passed
But then in 1992 a new administration came into power at NASA and Zubrin
Saw a second chance
I was invited to brief Mike Griffin who was the associate administrator for space exploration in charge of the whole space exploration initiative?
He immediately became a very strong supporter Mars direct
But before the engineers at NASA would take another look at Mars direct
They wanted Zubrin to prove the producing rocket fuel on Mars could work
They gave Martin Marietta a small budget to do an experiment Zubrin and his team built a machine called the in-situ propellant plan
It could take carbon dioxide the dominant gas in the Martian atmosphere
Combine it with a little hydrogen and produce a methane-oxygen fuel
We did it in three months with a very small team. We built a plant. That was 94%
efficient and
No one who actually participated in that effort was actually a real chemical engineer
They were all aerospace engineers like me who were simply dabbling in chemistry
In order to prove to NASA that 19th century
chemical engineering really worked
With the experiment to success the administration had Zubrin give detailed briefings of the mission plan to the engineers of the Johnson Space Center
They liked it, but had some problems Dave Weaver was the lead mission architect
There were a number of things that we were concerned about with bob zubrin’s mission
First of all, we thought his estimates of mass were probably too optimistic
Didn’t have sufficient margins for a variety of things not the least of which would be things like provisions
For the crew the amount of water, that would be required
We thought as a sent vehicle was very large, which meant his power requirements his propellant
requirements were
Much larger than needed to be his trip times out were too long and that for a very little effort you could get him shorter
The other problem was the size of his crew. He had a four-person crew
I think virtually every study that’s been done says that a four-person crew for a
Three-year type of mission is probably not realistic
Weaver took Zubrin into his office and the two men worked out compromised mission architecture
First Weaver wanted three launches for every mission instead of two
the first year three ships would launch a MAV Mars ascent vehicle an unoccupied hab and
an ERV earth return vehicle
The harb and MAV would land on the surface and begin producing fuel for the return flight and air for the crew
These crafts would spend to solitary years on Mars allowing NASA to test all of the system’s before sending a human crew
Then in the third year three more ships would launch
This time with the hab occupied by astronauts. The other two ships are for a future mission unless needed as a backup for this crew
Once on Mars the team could also utilize the first hab
Then after a year and a half stay the crew would climb aboard their small capsule and rendezvous with the returned ship
This ship would carry them back home in a roomier environment than zubrin’s ERV
Zubrin called the plan Mars semi direct
NASA called it the design reference mission. They had a larger crew than we had they had bigger ships
They had more equipment they had heavier equipment so they had to do the mission in three launches instead of two
But it was done with the same principles of Mars direct
The plan was subjected to the same cost analysis that tagged the 90-day report with a four hundred and fifty billion dollar price tag
The design reference mission came back at a fraction of the cost
55 billion
Spread out over 10 years. It could be done within NASA’s existing budget
The plan made the cover of Newsweek
Here was a mission architecture that was affordable and could be done today with existing technology
but NASA’s astronauts have not left low Earth orbit since
With the completion of the International Space Station and the retiring of the space shuttle program a
debate rages over the future of space exploration
Should NASA continue to focus on low-earth orbit developing technologies for the future
Or shouldn’t a sir have a goal like it did in the 1960s with Apollo
the way we got to the moon was by a
presidential imperative that demanded that NASA get to the moon within a decade
So NASA was forced to sit down design a plan for how to do that and then fly the mission
Since that time without the presence of the driving imperative we engage in basically a random set of
Constituency driven programs which are justified ad hoc
Afterwards by the argument that they could prove useful at some time in the future when you actually have a plan to go somewhere. I
Think NASA has focused on a steady process where the government can’t just pull the plug on their funding. I
think the Apollo cancellation was very traumatic for NASA and it really
Transformed NASA from what it was in the 60s to more of what it is now
If you have a singular program like going to Mars then it is very vulnerable to having its funding pool
NASA must be destination-driven
It is the only thing that allows the agency to be productive NASA was a hundred times more productive when it was
Destination-driven than in the period that has not been and we have stagnated in NASA since 1973
Thirty years more than a generation has been wasted
The American space program has been stacking for thirty years. There is a once-in-a-generation
Shot right now to get it moving again by giving it a goal that will take it somewhere
Some mistakes today are high
And if you ask me if I am nervous right now I and
Dr. Zubrin why is NASA stuck in low-earth orbit?
The problem with NASA’s lack of current achievement is not money. The problem is lack of focus its lack of a goal
It shouldn’t be humans to Mars in 50 years. It should be humans to Mars in 10
We can do this. We do not need gigantic nuclear-electric spaceships
To send people to Mars that that is pork
It’s nonsense the primary question I get from American people is why aren’t we doing this?
There’s a big sense of disappointment almost verging on a sense of betrayal
The purpose of spaceships is to actually travel across space and go to new worlds not to hang out in space and observe the health
Effects from doing so dr. Zubrin in your testimony. You were very passionate, but you also were mad
You’re mad. We haven’t done this or that this vision has been stolen from a generation
I guess you could say that
It’s like Columbus coming back from the New World and Ferdinand and Isabella saying ask so what forget it burned the ships
Okay, you know that’s what has happened in this country
We’ve won our point but there needs to be a destination
What we need the point we need to win on now is the destination needs to be Mars and it needs to be suit
The movement to send humans to Mars in the near term began at the University of Colorado in
1978 a
Graduate student in Astro geophysics named Chris McKay gave a small seminar on the possibility of introducing life to Mars. I
Got interested in Mars in graduate school
I enter graduate school the same year that Viking landed on Mars and sent back these images that sent back
Data that showed. All the elements needed for life are here on this planet and yet there’s no life here
I know that’s sort of the lights are on and nobody’s home. And I thought well, that’s curious
So some of my other grad students and I we sort of got together to talk about
Well if there’s no life on Mars now
Could we put life there and that evolved also into the question was maybe there was life in the past
And so we could find fossils evidence of it
Well, how would you do that while you do that by sending people there?
Together with fellow graduate students the group decided to put together a small conference to discuss the matter of human Mars exploration
We basically just started a forum
We invited everybody from all the NASA centers and from all the universities were involved in it
And they all came and it was it really was in retrospect
I realized a very important step toward building a consensus for human exploration of Mars in 1996
I published my first book the case for Mars and
the response was phenomenal I got
4,000 letters from all of the world
Parisian bankers and twelve year old kids in Poland and firemen from Saskatoon and
Astronauts and they’re all writing me and saying how do we make this?
Bob Zubrin
Came to the 3rd Mars conference and got very much involved. He was willing and interested in forming a society forming a group in
Organizing said look if we could pull these people together we can get them to work together
We could have a force that could actually make humans to Mars had the group formed the Mars Society
Robert Zubrin became the president they held their first convention in 1998 the convention
was just
Magic, we had no idea how many people were coming. They were there not just from the United States and Canada Europe
They were there for Israel. They were there from Mozambique. We are there from New Zealand
It was astonished
Since its inception the Mars Society has attracted members worldwide
Derek Shannon is the head of the Southern California Chapter
He’s met with political leaders from all over the country if you make them look at the whole Mars
vision in
Historical terms it becomes a much easier. So how will be Martians?
Remember our century. They’re probably not going to remember our deficit our Wars or healthcare. Those will be footnotes
What they’ll remember is it out of all of human history?
there came a generation that decided to take this amazing step out into space and
If you tell politicians and they’re the ones whose names actually get to be remembered. That’s when hopefully the space program starts going somewhere
In order to further the knowledge necessary for a manned mission to the red planet
The Mars Society has been building research stations around the globe all of them based on the design of zubrin’s hab module
Most recently the society set up a desert Research Station in Utah
Here international researchers and aerospace students come to do experiments under the harsh desert conditions
And learn what’s necessary to keep a Mars crew alive and productive
Basically, what we’re doing here is undergoing analog studies crews of up to six people at a time come together to live in a full
Simulation environment for up to 14 days. So what that means is
Every time we go outside they have people have to Don spacesuits
After depressurize
When we go outside, they called extra vehicular activities, they can only be of a certain duration to the air supply
We have to recycle all our water and basically have our own food as well
It’s great to fantasize but it’s another thing when you have to put it together when the nuts have to fit the bolts
Like the Apollo missions to the moon
Sending human beings to Mars will mean putting people in harm’s way
there are many dangers in outer space and many things could go wrong a
Serious equipment breakdown could doom the crew to their deaths
Some argue that the risk of failure is simply too high
You know back in the days when medieval man was looking out from Europe thinking about exploring in the world
The world was unknown and mapmakers populated
their maps with dragons
We’ve got the same thing today
There are people who are afraid to go out into space and they’ve populated their maps of the solar system of dragons
You know, we’ve got cosmic radiation. We’ve got zero gravity. We’ve got bat contamination, but these are
Dragons that we can take on
There are two kinds of radiation astronauts must contend with in outer space solar flares and cosmic rays
Solar flares are floods of protons that burst from the Sun at irregular intervals and would be dangerous to an unshielded human crew
We are now ready to send humans to Mars right now
We’ve got to know a lot more about radiation and radiation
mitigation one of the Apollo flights
Barely missed like by a week a major solar event if it had gone off when the Apollo
Astronauts are on the way back and forth to the moon
They would have gotten their entire lifetime radiation dose in that one mission and that’s it’s one Solar Flare
So that’s why we worry about this in the Maz direct plan
Zubrin envisions a central insulated core where a crew can retreat to while the radiation passes by
The core would be surrounded by all the provisions of the mission. This should stop any harmful dose of radiation from reaching the astronauts
Basically, you use your pantry as your storm shelter. So a solar flare happens the alarm bell rings
The crew goes into the storm shelter
They stay in there cramped up pretty tight for a few hours until the all-clear rings and they come out
this is gonna happen once it might happen twice in the course of the mission the
Second type of radiation is cosmic rays
This constant rain of charged particles comes from interstellar space and cannot be avoided without many metres of shielding
We can experience some of this type of radiation on earth at high altitudes
Airline pilots who spend their career is flying high in the atmosphere
Can receive almost as much of this radiation throughout their life as a Mars astronaut would on a two-and-a-half year mission
It’s a long trip. It’s a six-month trip there six months back is probably a year on the surface. That’s a lot of radiation
the best estimates are that the magnitude of that dose is not that great perhaps
60 REM of radiation
scattered over two-and-a-half years now 60 REM of radiation
Delivered over a long period of time like that would not create any noticeable effects at all
It would though it is believed increase your statistical risk of getting cancer at some point later in your life by about 1%
Right now if you’re an average American and you do not smoke you have a 20% chance you’re going to die of cancer
This would make it 21 if you’re an average American smoker
It’s 40
in fact
If you recruited the Mars crew out of smokers and sent them to Mars without their tobacco
You would be reducing their chance of getting cancer
With the immense distance from Earth never before experienced by a human being with the constant dangers of outer space
Surrounding their small life-sustaining craft and with nowhere else to go the psychological
Impact on a crew could be severe
Fear is real
I mean it would be to me abnormal for a person to not feel the fear of getting on a
rocket and launching into space and
Going to Mars
so I think fear is a very normal thing that all astronauts in fact are supposed to have and
I would be afraid to fly with someone who does not have fear
Some psychologists worry the cabin fever could set in and the crew might literally go crazy
The human Mars mission is a more rigorous and difficult condition than most of us experience in daily life
But it is hardly more difficult situation than many people have endured throughout human history
We could compare the Mars crew to the crew of 19th century or prior
sailing vessels
many of whom were away from home for three years or more than three years under conditions in which they’re eating extremely bad food without
Any medical knowledge to support their health commanded by brutal officers in every respect the crew of the human Mars mission
With the full support of Mission Support in the whole world cheering for them and great
Rewards awaiting for them in life upon their return is in a vastly superior condition
The Mazda eight crew spend most of their time inside the two-story hab
Carefully designed to promote psychological well-being despite the confinement the space where I think everybody would spend the most time, you know
Just like a lot of homes on earth
It would be the galley wardroom area there would be chairs a table some kind of large screen for entertainment you would have
individual staterooms about four or five feet wide
The ability for them to communicate with loved ones with colleagues on earth. I think will be almost unlimited a
Mars crew will need to be carefully chosen and thoroughly tested to ensure their ability to handle the extreme isolation
John Young went to the moon used to say that he could cover
The earth by just lifting his thumb up to up to it
And he says that when you go to Mars you are going to redefine
The concept of loneliness and so it is very important that the crew be well-balanced and well-chosen
So that they can support each other
Whoever gets picked to go they will have to learn to live together for two-and-a-half years
if you put out a call for
volunteers for the first crew to Mars
They’d be lined up coast to coast
most people recognize
what’s left after you go is the good you left behind and
To take part in adventure this character such a historic character of extending the reach of the human species
This is something of immortal significance
One of the most bogus threats
Associated with the Mars mission is the so called back contamination issue
Which is this notion that you go to Mars and discover these virulent disease
Organisms that you bring back to earth and destroy all life on Earth if we discover life on Mars one fear
Is that our earth biology will have no defense against possible Martian pathogens?
Some argue that missions to Mars cannot be risked until we can prove Mars is free from harmful contaminants
This is completely nonsensical
There’s natural transfer of material from Mars to earth all the time
We get around 500 kilograms of unsterilized Martian rocks landing on earth
Every year and they have been doing so for the past three four
Billion years. And so if there were Martian organisms that could contaminate the earth they’ve already done so
although the prospect of Martian diseases seems remote
Lawmakers have required that NASA create elaborate protocol to ensure that any extraterrestrial
material stays contained and
like the Apollo astronauts who spent 17 days in quarantine after they returned from a sterile moon a
Mars crew will have to be thoroughly tested for any harmful Martian pathogens
the probability is
Infinitesimally tiny but nevertheless this is our home planet and it’s extremely important and we have to protect it
The idea of a pathogen on Mars is clearly ridiculous because there is no megafauna or mega flora on Mars
for pathogens to infect
So it is impossible to propose a credible lifecycle for a Martian karagin
the
diseases that afflict us have been Co evolving with us and our
ancestors and near relatives for the past three billion years and
They are specifically designed to live inside the habitat of the human body and to overcome its
Defenses and they’ve been engaged in an arms race with the human defenses for those 3 billion years
This is why humans do not get diseases from distantly related species
For example, I don’t know of any person who has ever contracted Dutch elm disease
You know in trees don’t get colds
When the first Mars Lander touches down the crew will be staring out at a new world a place that in four billion years
No eyes have ever seen
The crew won’t be alone
Millions of television viewers back home will be watching as the first man or woman places their footprint into the rust-colored soil
The crew will savor these moments for here someday a new branch of civilization might begin and
Future Martians will remember and celebrate this day
There is much for the crew to do and explore
One of their main mission objectives will be to search for signs of microscopic life
To do this they will follow the ancient water flows for on earth where there is water there is life
To help the crew in their search they will have a pressurized Rover that allows them to explore in a comfortable shirtsleeve environment
This means the crew can examine a vast area around the landing site during their 18-month stay and
There is much to explore
Mars has 58 different kinds of topography and a surface area equivalent to all the continents of Earth combined
If these explorers can uncover the fossilized remnants of indigenous Martian life
They will redefine mankind’s understanding of its place in the universe
But if life arose separately on a planet so close to our own it strongly suggests that the universe is a
biologically rich place and full of life
For some the ultimate question of Mazda is will there be human settlements on the planet?
Will Mars become a new branch of human civilization?
As
Each subsequent Mars mission explores a wider and wider area of the planet over several years
An ideal site for a base will be found
Probably worn with a thermal vent that can supply water and power
At that point several Habs will be landed in this one spot with crews that plan to stay for
eight or even twelve years
Perhaps we’ll be interconnected and a permanent human presence on Mars will be established
This scientific community will have to learn to become self-sufficient
To be able to survive on Mars without supplies constantly being sent from Earth
Unlike any other planet in the solar system besides Earth Mars has all of the fundamentals needed to make this possible
It’s 24 hour and 37 minute day is critical for growing plants
it has all of the elements necessary for creating building materials, like plastics metals and glass and
It has oceans of water frozen into the soil
If we can develop this craft of living on Mars
Then Mars becomes inhabitable
Not immediately physically, but intellectually
I mean, look what determines whether an environment is habitable or not is Colorado habitable
We’re not naturally adapted to live in Colorado. We’re tropical animals
No one could survive a single winter night here without technology such as clothing efficient use of fire
we
Invented our way into becoming people that could colonize such hostile environments
Eventually with a lot of ingenuity and invention the scientists will learn to live off the land
they will grow crops in the iron-rich but potassium poor soil and
They will produce oxygen and energy from the water and atmosphere
Sooner or later children will be born the first true Martians. They will grow up to see Mars as their home
With time more and more people will arrive these won’t only be scientists but settlers people who plan to stay
They may come for all kinds of reasons
But to them Mars will be a chance to start over to build a new life for themselves
The well of human social thought is not exhausted by the present age and I don’t think we’ll ever be exhausted
There will always be people with new ideas on how humans should live together
With Mars so far away the hold of earth governments on their colonies will be tenuous
The Martians will need to govern themselves
Mars is not going to be utopia
Mars is gonna be a lab. It’s an open frontier. It’s a place where things are gonna be tried out
I think we’ll see a lot of noble experiments on Mars
Perhaps some of these Martian colonies with their novel ideas based on the best thought the 21st century has to offer
Maybe they’ll find ways in which humans create societies that are more humane and offer more
opportunity for you and potential the
Ultimate dream of the Martians will be to terraform their planet to make Mars as hospitable as Earth
This may not be as big a fantasy as it seems
Here we are an earth a world. That’s very
Sophisticated and developed and complete and anything we do is just a subtraction
It’s because we live in such a biologically rich planet when we go to Mars
We have an opportunity that we don’t have on earth. Here’s a planet that’s died
Here’s a world that’s not full of biology. It probably doesn’t have any at all. Well there we can actually do something to help
Once there are large even settlements on Mars that would have significant industrial capability
We could actually start addressing ourselves to the question of transforming the Martian environment itself
Terraforming Mars as it is called because Mars was once a warm and wet planet and it could be made
So again through human engineering efforts
With daytime temperatures in the Martian tropical zone averaging around zero degrees centigrade and with an atmosphere
Only 1% as thick as Earth’s
Exposure to these elements by human without a space suit would be instantly fatal
The first step to terraforming Mars and bringing it back to life will be for the Martian colonists to warm up their planet
Well, we know how to warm up planets. We’re doing it on earth
By putting gases in the atmosphere on earth. It’s not a good idea to warm up the planet. The temperature was just fine
Thank you. We don’t need it any warmer here but in principle if you could trap the sunlight
Reaching Mars today
Every single photon that’s hitting Mars
Mars would warm up in about ten years
Well, obviously you can’t trap every single photon. That’s hitting Mars
But you can trap about 10% of them with the greenhouse effect
So that would imply that Mars could warm up in about 100 years
100 years is a long time, but it’s not
astronomically long
One idea is to build small automated factories that produce super greenhouse gasses with no ozone depleting side effects
Although these gases would be unwelcome on earth for the Martians there would be an efficient way to trap heat
Then within a few decades we would raise Mars by more than 10 degrees centigrade
And if you did that
That would cause massive amounts of carbon dioxide that is currently adsorbed into the Martian soil to start to outguess
Carbon dioxide is also a natural greenhouse gas as it builds up in the atmosphere
More and more heat will be trapped which will in turn cause more co2 to out gas
The process will become automatic
And as the atmosphere thickens Mars will eventually reach a state of equilibrium and stay warm naturally
The rise in air pressure would mean that the human colonists could discard their pressure suits and
Walk around the surface of Mars carrying only a supply of oxygen
And as the temperatures rise on Mars
water frozen into the soil will begin to melt out and
For the second time in its history Mars would have liquid water on its surface
Drei Martian rivers will start to flow
Seas will rise and there will be rain clouds in the skies
The return of Mars to its warm and wet stage will make it a fertile environment for life
Any indigenous Martian organisms lying dormant will begin to grow and Mars will be full of Martians
If no native life emerges or that life is all dead and humans could begin addressing the idea of bringing life from Earth
At first it would be simple organisms perhaps genetically engineered that would thrive in the Martian environment
Then more complex plants could be introduced
The plants would be right at home in the carbon dioxide atmosphere and with no competition and a whole planet to cover
They could transform Mars into a green world
Warming Mars so that it sustains life is rapid but then the slow process of making the atmosphere
Breathable for humans and animals starts and that’s done by plants
Although the process will happen naturally if the colonists can’t find a quicker way. It will take tens of thousands of years
This is a philosophical debate many people think the universe has a big sign on it that says do not touch
Leave it alone was made this way that is not in our purview as human beings to change anything
I can respect that view, although I disagree with it
I think the universe has a big sign on it that says go forth and spread life
Because when I look around the universe
I think life is the most amazing thing
We see it is just incredible and we human beings are uniquely positioned to help spread light from this little tiny planet
Which it seems to have been started on
beyond and
That’s our gift
Earth’s gift to the universe I think is the gift of life
This scheme for terraforming Mars is based on 20th century notions of engineering I
Don’t think it is how Mars will actually be terraformed
What you have here is a 20th century mind
Trying to address a 22nd century problem
And so I think Mars will be terraformed by the 23rd century not by the 33rd
23rd things that would seem utterly fantastical to us is how it will actually be done, but it’ll be done
We’re at a crossroads today
We either muster the courage to go or we risk the possibility of stagnation in the case
the exploration of the solar system and expanding of life through the rest of our solar system and some day beyond is the
Kind of thing that will keep our civilization going
We’re explorers by Nature eventually, we will go to the Stars and the question is when we start I
Think a manned Mars mission could happen within 15 years
Some days. I’m very optimistic. I think we can do it in 10, maybe 15 years
Other days I see the all the political things that go into the space program. I look back on 230 years
We’ve been bogged down and I and I get more negative about and I say it’s going to be another three decades or four decades
Yeah, we’d be surprised if we got to Mars prior to
2025 or 2030
in May of
2018
Understanding the various political obstacles that exist in what we need to fight through to get the program started
I believe that we will be on Mars by 2020
You have to believe in hope you have to believe in the future
There are more and more people coming around to the point of view that a positive future for Humanity
requires human expansion to space
We will eventually break through the forces of inertia that have been holding this thing back
You
We are surrounded by thousands and thousands of stars, are we alone in this vast cosmic landscape?
Science is searching for an answer and has outlined two hypotheses one
We are alone and life is an anomalous fact that can only be explained by an unpredictable and eventful combination of circumstances
To life is implicit in the nature of the universe and its appearance anywhere is unavoidable
The systematic search for extraterrestrial life has just begun
Its discovery would be the most important earners in the history of mankind
Presently from out there only the ekor of an intense silence reaches us
This gigantic diaphanous mass occupies a space that is a thousand times greater than the solar system
It is one of the many interstellar clouds that the universe contains
Hundreds of organic molecules accumulate in its interior many of them are identical or similar to those that make up the living beings on earth
As
Knowledge of the universe advances it is confirmed that the ingredients of life do not exist. Only on earth
To the contrary as living beings. We are made from a raw material that is abundant in the universe you
Can think of the origin of life is perhaps in three different ways in one extreme
Life is a miracle life comes from God a unique event
If so science can’t address the question because science can’t address miracles miracles by definition
define natural law but
life may have been
Consistent with physics and chemistry and yet a very rare perhaps a unique event
very improbable because of chance and if so again,
Science has trouble addressing the question because how can one go to a laboratory and study an improbable event
So only in the third case if life is an inevitable consequence of chemistry and physics
If anywhere there’s water in rock and air life
arises
Then science can hope to answer the question
When we ask ourselves about the mystery of life we almost always look at the earth for the answer
We have no other reference although the earth with its inexhaustible
Variety of forms plants and animals is like a box of surprises and new questions more than a direct answer
No one is sure where life begins and ends on earth this is possible that something exists
That is not just a copy more or less advanced than what we have on earth
We already know with much precision what caused life to develop on our planet
Everything began with water and with the release of certain chemical elements like carbon and oxygen
Which combined to form organic molecules?
These molecules thanks to the light of the Sun electric discharges from the atmosphere and the energy from the interior of the earth
Became incipient living beings
Thus starting with water chemical elements and a source of energy the most elemental living organism known today appeared
bacteria
In 1953 the American chemist Stanley Miller and Harold Urey tried to reproduce the origin of life in a laboratory
They placed water vapor methane and ammonia in a test tube and ran a continuous electric current through it
Almost one week later the water had acquired color and new compounds it appeared including two amino acids
Which are the basic building blocks of life?
This combination however continued to be just as lifeless
Perhaps something similar to this experiment occurred on earth
but if this is true
It was nothing more than another failed attempt that kept the planet during its early stages as a barren lifeless place
Experiments aimed at reproducing the origin of life have helped science to define with greater precision
The frontier between living material and lifeless material between life and non-life
Series of specific characteristics that make a living beings different from a non living being
for example
Replication a living being should replicate generate progeny. It should produce offspring whether they are molecular children or some
Meaning that replication should not be exact from father to child because we would laugh diversity
in replication
There should be a series of mutations that introduce changes between the parental generation and the generation of the descendant
and these changes will make the descendants different from each other and
Being different amongst themselves means they will react in different ways to stimuli
selective pressure and to environmental changes
Therefore some better than others
Living beings there replicate in a bottle and they have a metabolism
This means that living being and ms are capable of carrying out a series of process
the consumption of energy they produce biomolecules
From a disorganized outside world, they produce organized molecules, which they used to grow and for their own metabolism
It’s possible that these are the three fundamental characteristics of living entities
replication
mutation and therefore evolution and
metabolism dilution
At the limit of these requirements we find the viruses which most scientists don’t consider living beings
It’s true that they reproduce and evolve that they transform with several mutations
But they only do so when they infect a cell which they use so that they can reproduce themselves
Thus viruses only act as living beings when they act as parasites on a cell
The question of this transition from non-life to life
that’s in some sense a philosophical question and yet many of us who work in the field have our prejudices and
mine, is that the transition occurs when competition and
natural selection begins
You can imagine inanimate nature
Molecules rocks water that’s not alive that doesn’t compete but at some point a level of organization
occurred in molecules molecular systems that could replicate themselves and
When that happened and because of the richness of organic molecules available you had slight differences in these
self-replicating molecules somewhere a little more efficient than others and
So life
begins to compete for
Resources for energy and to me the crucial stage in the origin of life. Is that very moment when competition
led to selection that’s
Darwinian evolution
Every day, the great milestones in the path of the evolution of species are better understood
The first step of life is still unknown. However
In laboratories biologists and chemists try to reproduce time and time again how this first gestation took place
To do so the key is to manage to get certain chemical molecules to combine in a specific way
Which is what provokes the miracle of life
The recipe of the great ant nest is a secret
scientists have no other option but to continue investigating how the miracle of life occurred and
The only place where they know that this has happened is on the earth
Just like the rest of the solar system
The earth was formed over 4.5 billion years ago
When the remains of a supernova like this one crossed a vast cloud of cosmic dust
After this accidental birth our planet was subject to bombardment by meteorites and comets during a large part of its history
During the first part of its existence the earth was an inhospitable place
Aside from external aggression. There was also a great volcanic activity on its surface
This violent phase however, favoured the evaporation of water and the emission of gases like carbon dioxide and methane
The atmosphere was slowly created with these elements
If this had not occurred the earth would eventually have been burned by the sun’s rays
During this infernal period the basic broth a kind of culture medium or breeding ground for life was also formed
The water of the Seas penetrated the cracks of the sea bottom and returned to the sea through the volcanoes
This water was enriched with minerals that it had taken from the heart of the earth which when it came into contact with the atmosphere
provoked that greatly
Chemistry opened the way to biology and the appearance of the first bacteria
Present-day organisms could not survive in such a toxic environment
But the planet’s path towards milder stable conditions allowed the first signs of life to maintain themselves and evolve from their simple forms
towards more complex beings
The impact of meteorites did not suddenly stop in fact many years later the dinosaurs disappeared due to their effects
But fortunately
Biodiversity was well developed at that time. And even though species disappeared in huge numbers life was already deeply rooted
Hundreds of organisms were able to survive in the middle of the impressive destruction
Life on Earth has overcome a variety of climatic and environmental changes
But as radical as the changes may be a living being that does not depend on water oxygen and solar energy
Or one that can survive in such extreme temperatures is not conceivable
In recent years, however
The discovery of organisms that live on the fringes of these laws are modifying our ideas about what a living being needs
These organisms are known as extremophiles the lovers of very radical external conditions
These waters belong to the river team Phil in the southern Spanish province of Waveline
It’s peculiar blood-red color which gave it its name is due to the metals that it bears
They come from the rocks that are drank from its headwaters and from spillages four mines
Steer a community of living beings has been discovered that challenges the traditional point of view concerning the environmental conditions that allow for survival
These microscopic images have been recorded in these unhealthy waters
Which show some organisms that assume basic vital functions without difficulties?
Dominant a less characteristic there are two extreme characteristics of the river the low pH in other words the acidity of the system
Which is around 2 and the high concentration of heavy metals always beside heavy metals are toxic
Especially those in the mining area of the river Tinto
essentially copper which is used to prevent the growth of fungi and vineyards and
Arsenic and cadmium etc. Speeding. Yes. The supplies was fine down eukaryotic organism a season
Not the prokaryotes the bacteria that eat minerals
But eukaryotes algae fungi filament fungi protozoans amoebas, etc
Which are present in a place where no one in the right mind what you think that they could exist?
The mysterious life that is hidden in the River Tinto has disconcerted scientists and not only because it is a unique class of extremophiles
It is extraordinary because in these conditions a certain degree of biological variety has developed with more or less common algae
fungi and amoebas
Their ability to adapt is such that we could say that they don’t appear to be terrestrial
The first extremophiles were discovered a little over 30 years ago in Yellowstone Park in the United States
They were organisms that survived in temperatures over 100 degrees Celsius
They appeared in geological chimneys where water vapor emerged from the interior of the earth
Scientists have also found living beings that are fond of extreme temperatures in the cold Antarctic rocks
In the ice or in the lakes of water found below they have found bacteria and algae living hundreds of meters below the surface
They are cold lovers living beings that have the peculiarities of growing slowly since the low temperatures slow down their metabolisms
At Moga cave in romania a group of several animals have lived isolated from the outside world for about five and a half million years
There is no oxygen or light there but 48 different species survive in this place
Its trophic chain takes advantage of the energy from the chemical elements that exist in the cave in order to produce nutritional substances for feeding
These strange mounds on the Australian coast are known as stromatolites
They are the fossil remains of bacteria that have been grouped in layers
The lower layers are formed by anaerobic bacteria, which are beings that strange as it may seem do not need oxygen to live
Even today there is a class of organisms that exist in environments that lack oxygen of which our intestine is one on others
There are even more cases of life in anonymous conditions in the Dead Sea and in specific salt lagoons of Africa’s Rift Valley
There are some salt living bacteria
To survive in a salty medium these organisms have developed their own mechanisms to avoid dehydration
Last table Philip the extremophiles are what allows us to open a series of scenarios
Which means if there are microorganisms that can grow at high temperatures
The model of originating life in an underwater volcano at a hundred or so degrees is not absurd
Because today there are microorganisms that can do it in a surface salt marsh. The high concentration is due to evaporation
Specific interactions are favorable which can happen since there are microorganisms that exist in these conditions today
If life emerged in such unfavorable environments it is therefore a much stronger impulse than what our limited vision expected
The discovery of these living beings in unimaginable conditions has had repercussions among those searching for the presence of life in space
If life here was possible in conditions that were different from what we enjoy today why couldn’t the same thing happen on other planets
Geologists biologists chemists and astrophysicists have come together in a new scientific field
Astrobiology, they have established new expectations about what type of life to search for and where to look for it
What we have successfully achieved is the collaboration of geologists and planetary astrophysicists
And the people dedicated to the original evolutionary chemistry
In this way geologists give us a guideline for example as to how the planet has evolved into a physical body
At the same time they join with planetary
Astrophysicists who explain how the earth was formed and how this formation is the result of the evolution of the universe itself
On the other hand the people who study evolutionary chemistry
Complex molecules that evolve and bridge the knowledge of the geologists about what existed on the original the primitive
opinion locality media
All these related Sciences of astrobiology are drawn from a basic idea
The appearance of life as a natural phenomenon as the inevitable consequence of a universe in continual change and evolution
In a shorter middle term
Astrobiology is searching to contrast the idea that life is a cosmic imperatives by applying the scientific method to it
The scientific method that is based on everything
We know from how a mobile phone works to how bridge is built or how to launch a spacecraft into outer space
This scientific method requires more than one example of a specific phenomenon life on Earth as we know it has extraordinary biodiversity
A biodiversity that is manifested in millions as different species on earth
all of these forms of life
However are based on certain unique principles so that the phenomenon of life as we know it on earth
Is the manifestation of a unique phenomenon?
Therefore the scientific method cannot be directly applied as a result
We have to go to other places in order to contrast whether life exists or has existence
In
1975 the direct search for life in the solar system began when NASA sent the Viking spacecrafts aloft with Mars as their destination
Today the red planet is very cold with average temperatures of minus 53 degrees Celsius
Which has frozen the water that at some point covered its surface
It is dominated by a current geological relief of deep craters and dusty dunes which gives it the appearance of a rocky desert
On the other hand the absence of an ozone layer subjects Mars to relentless ultraviolet solar radiation
In this dead land it would seem impossible to find life
The results of the tests carried out by the Viking mission confirmed this hypothesis and the scientific interest in Mars was set aside
Studies of extremophiles on earth a lower have put Mars back in the game for
Scientists the absence of signs of life in the two places where the Viking spacecraft took samples is not final proof
They have to search other parts of the planet with milder environments and investigate the possibility that life manifested itself there in the past
Well, I think to me
the fact that we’re seeing that life exists in these very extreme environments on earth gives us
optimism that
we’ll find life other places because
We know for example on Mars that there is liquid water at times. We know that there’s ice
We know that they’re very dry regions
They’re probably very salty regions too. And so it seems to me that
The fact that we find life
existing on earth in these extreme
Environments means that we don’t know yet the limits
every year the limits increase
In terms of our discoveries, so why not?
Broaden the limits a bit more to to the environments of some of the planets
I think Mars is the planet of greatest interest for astrobiological
exploration
first because it’s nearby and therefore is is fairly easy to explore or at least relatively easy to explore and
second because
although today
Mars is a very forbidding planet low temperatures
very little atmosphere
Tectonic Li it appears to be almost dead at least at the time that life emerged on earth
Mars was a planet much like much more like our own restaurant identical book much more
It had active volcanism. It had a thicker atmosphere
At least episodically it had liquid water
And so therefore mars is a good candidate to ask
The question directly did life appear more than once and if it did appear on Mars the way we will recognize it is
in general
The same way that we recognize evidence of ancient life on Earth through micro fossils
Through the influence of microbial communities on sediments and through chemical signatures that they impart to rocks
1984 a
scientific expedition goes to the Antarctic to collect samples of meteorites the
Solitude and the conditions of the frozen continent have kept them intact
Here they discovered a rock that became a key piece in the investigation of Mars
It weighs almost two kilograms and is known as al H in
1996 at NASA
David McKay and his team presented it to the public as a Martian meteorite with possible fossil evidence of certain living beings
Since then the era light alongside others that had been previously collected have triggered a debate within the scientific community
On whether or not we are standing before the definitive evidence that Mars also for life
We’ve been studying the the alh meteorite for a long time now
We’re also looking at other Mars meteorites
there are now 18 different Mars meteorites and we’ve looked in detail in about four of them and
We have found what we believe to be signs of life in all four meteorites that we have studied
First alh then then Nakhla which fell in egypt in 1911
then sure Gatti which fell in India and
Then Lafayette which was recovered in Indiana USA
We think we see evidence for life we have to prove it
We haven’t proved it yet to the satisfaction of the scientific community, but we’re working on that
How long will that take?
Possibly a few more years we hope that we can do that
Either prove it or disprove it within say three or four more years and that’s what we’re we’re working on
Through the study of meteorites and through new explorations scientists. Hope to decipher the Martian enigmas in the period of just one decade
The European Space Agency is also participating in the race with the Mars Express, which will be launched in 2004
It is a satellite that will be placed in orbit around Mars and which has a landing module
Both devices will carry out in-depth studies of the planet and with the images obtained precise maps of the territory will be drawn up
As the Museu knows since the American Viking missions in the 1970s
There has not been another mission with such a central astrobiological focus in its investigations as the Mars Express
As fool’s he misty and furthermore
This spacecraft has a landing vehicle the Beagle 2 with a series of instruments
To analyze the chemistry and organic substances of the planet
Such as the rock minerals and the surface of Mars
They can also take images of the surface and measure the composition of the atmosphere around the landing area
It even has instruments able to reach a depth of between one and one and a half meters in order to analyze the subsoil
Which has not been affected by ultraviolet radiation and where indications of life may be preserved better than on the surface
Parrinello sorry Supes Widow
Conocido effect I’ll pour la radio thermal travelator in kuala pedido preserve our say in details de vida
In addition to Mars, the scientific community is investigating other planets within the solar system
Mercury and Venus due to their extremely hot climates have been ruled out
Uranus Neptune and Pluto due to their extremely cold climates are not worthy of consideration either
Saturn and jupiter are the only two left to gassy giants where life seems impossible
These planets however have satellites orbiting around them that are arousing scientific interest
In the case of Jupiter the moons IO and Europa two satellites, which thanks to the energy of the planet
They orbit are much hotter than what was expected given their great distance from the Sun
Io is the satellite with the most volcanoes interruption in the entire solar system, which is a positive symptom
Due to the history of the earth. It is known that volcanoes can play a fundamental role in the generation of life
In contrast however, signs of water have not been detected yet which for the moment reduces the hope of finding life
Europa seems to be a more gifted contender. It’s frozen surface may shelter an enormous ocean below with organic molecules
If these were to exist just as it happened on earth the discharge of some kind of energy may provoke the appearance of life
And
in this aspect
There are also indications that the moon Europa has volcanoes which is why some scientists hope that life exists or has existed there
So Mars is our best candidate but on a longer time scale
I think the exploration of Europa is going to be interesting
There’s every reason to believe there is an a long-standing
Water body and ocean if you will on Europa, and that could have incubated life
It may actually have a higher probability than Mars of actually having still living organisms
So we might be able to look by biological techniques for life on Europa
Whereas on Mars I think largely it’s going to be a paleontological exercise
In the orbit around Saturn there is a satellite called Titan
Which with a diameter less than half the size of the earth is very similar to our planet in other aspects
In 1980 the Voyager 1 spacecraft passed by Titan at a distance of 7,000 kilometers
Which enabled it to carry out a detailed study?
The images show a disturbing orange atmosphere with a touch of blue on the horizon mainly made up of methane
Who
According to the scientists who studied the data the smell of the air of Titan should be like the inside of an oil refinery
Methane is the star gas of this satellite
It is suspected that it may exist in three states solid liquid and gas
So perhaps there are giant oceans of methane with polar ice caps made up of this compound
It is also possible that there is an evaporation cycle and methane rain is produced
If this were true
It could be compared with the earth and water as if methane were able to fulfill the role that water plays on our planet in
This case cells could exist that have methane in their interior. Just like ours have water
If
This hypothesis of methane beings were true. We would be dealing with organisms that live at very low temperatures with very slow biochemistry
One of the key attributes for life on Earth is the presence of water and I think it’s fair to say that in most astrobiological
exploration
People look for water first and then if there is water on a planet or a moon
Then perhaps there will be some sort of life
So the question becomes is there another substance that might do the same job as water and it has been suggested
from time to time that methane
Would be a substitute for water has a substrate for life
If so, it’s not easy to imagine what kind of life that would be
Certainly, it would not be a life. That would be easily recognizable in terms of our experience on earth
Whether or not it’s impossible. I don’t know but I
Would certainly think it would be much less probable than a life
That is based on a on a watery environment and so in that regard when we think about a place like Titan
Well, perhaps Titan could have given rise to life. It certainly has given rise to complex organic molecules
But in the absence of water, I think the probability
The life would have emerged from that chemistry is much much lower
In 1998 the Cassini spacecraft was sent into space with Saturn as its destination
One of its missions is to study Titan thanks to its atmosphere intro which will descend down onto Titan surface
This will take place in 2004 starting them perhaps the mystery of the methane satellite can be deciphered
The first explorations of the solar system have not provided proof of extraterrestrial life
But the absence of evidence as paradoxical as it may seem increases the belief that life is possible
The mechanisms of life are better understood today
Furthermore it is also known that life can develop in much more open conditions than was originally believed
The question is what kind of life are we dealing with?
Instead of beings with antenna and extraordinary abilities more realistic scientists assert that there is no intelligent life in our immediate cosmic environment
It’s one thing to find unicellular organisms on a planet but it’s something very different to believe that these beings
Necessarily evolved into such complex forms as human beings
If earth is the point of reference the data is devastating of the millions of species that have prospered here
Only one has been able to develop technological intelligence
We can then say well what are the conditions that might
favor
intelligent life and certainly one is environmental you certainly need an
Environment that’s capable of sustaining the biology of a large
organism and on our planet that only became possible when oxygen rose to high concentrations in the atmosphere and
then second
one can ask what kind of lifestyles would
Facilitate the origin of intelligence and there certainly predation is important
Once you have to get your food by capturing prey
there is strong selective pressure for
very very sophisticated sensory apparatus and the neurological ability to integrate
Sensory apparatus and there’s also very strong selective
Selective forces favoring highly sophisticated muscular systems and again a highly sophisticated
coordination of the neurological and muscular systems once those were in place
Then I think the basic biological
Attributes that could lead to intelligence were there
The lack of existing intelligent life in the proximities of the earth
Does not mean that it cannot be found in other parts of the universe
Nothing is impossible within the magnitudes and dimensions of the cosmos the
Universe has hundreds of thousands of galaxies which at the same time have thousands of millions of stars
some of which are accompanied by planets
There are so many possibilities that we have to search far beyond the limits of the solar system
In 1996 the first extrasolar planets were detected and since then their numbers have increased
Unceasingly adding up to hundreds of them today
Most of them are big planets normally located very close to their corresponding Sun
The main difficulty is that they cannot be observed directly yet. Their existence is a deduction made from the behavior of the star the
Most successful techniques so far for finding planets around other stars is the so called radial velocity or spectroscopic
Technique this technique sanim direct technique
You don’t actually see the planet what you see instead is the star
moving around the center of mass of the planet star system
That is we all are familiar with planets moving around a star but in addition the star moves around on a much smaller orbit
the center of mass of the star planet system
so we detect the planets by seeing the star move around and we detect the stellar motion by looking at the
line-of-sight changes in the velocity of the star
Using this the Doppler technique which are familiar with from hearing a train whistle as a trance coming towards you or away from you
Same thing with a star the Stars. It’s coming towards you. It’s light is shifted towards the blue as it’s moving away from us
It’s shifted towards the red
so by watching very carefully how the
spectral lines of the star change with time one could infer that the star is moving back and forth on its orbit and
Something must be causing that motion and we now know that that is actually a planet
NASA and the European Space Agency plan to place infrared telescopes in space in order to observe the extrasolar planets directly
If they have an atmosphere, that would be a good sign since an atmosphere normally regulates extreme temperatures
Which are found quite frequently on many planets
The telescope’s will analyze these atmospheres in order to find evidence of the necessary chemical elements for life to be produced
Oxygen which is present in our atmosphere
Is one of the key signs of life, but it is not the only element that they are looking for
there is also the signature of co2 carbon dioxide and
water vapor and these three compounds are all involved in the reaction that produce oxygen by biology which is
oxygenic photosynthesis and
If there there are all these three signature, it could be a very very good indicator for the presence of some
Photosynthetic activity and another signature is the the signature spectroscopic signature of methane
Because it’s it seemed that the primitive life forms on earth
could have produce huge amount of methane in the atmosphere and
This could be detected. There was a very efficient telescope
The possibility of an intelligent civilisation in some corner of the universe has encouraged the sending of messages into outer space
These images place us in the year 1974
When a communication was broadcast from Addis Ababa Porto Rico towards a dense ball of stars located
25,000 light-years away from us
If someone was able to decode the message he or she or it would find a pictogram explaining the foundations of life on Earth
Meanwhile some spacecraft sent into outer space which are never going to return to Earth having graved plaques about who we are
The Voyager spaceships more specifically have all kinds of sounds and images
Even those of animals tribal songs and a Beethoven string quartet
But almost 40,000 years will have passed before the Voyager approaches the first star
The SETI program is another initiative for establishing contact
They are doing more than just sending messages
They are now trying to receive them that is if there is an alien civilization that uses radio waves in its interstellar communications
To powerful radio telescopes are being used to detect radio signals from space which are later analyzed in an enormous computer
Information is so abundant that the SETI program allows anyone who wants to use his or her computer to help with this task of
distinguishing captured signals
When the computer is resting a program is activated to analyze the data provided by the central computer
Almost 3 million people collaborate with the SETI program
Some curious signals have been detected but after being thoroughly investigated it has been proved that they were nothing more than telecommunication equipment
interferences
To date we have not received news from outer space
Western culture suffered an earthquake when Copernicus
Discovered that the earth and man were not the center of the universe but mere extras in a corner of the cosmos
The discovery of planets revolving around other stars now shows us that planets are a common occurrence
With this knowledge someday
It may be possible to solve the question of whether we as the inhabitants of the earth
Do or don’t represent the only life forms in the universe
Seems what does England finally be beings in other parts of the universe? It will be without a doubt
It’s the most important discovery in the history of mankind
But we will therefore be able to show and in a palpable way that life is a consequence of the evolution of the universe
furthermore
Since we proudly believe that we are unique and the most powerful living beings
We will realise that we are nothing more than a coincidence but frozen in the evolution of the universe
This will add in an important way to our understanding of humility as human beings
We should be humble not only with respect to ourselves
But also with respect to other species that live on the planet
We should also give life the respect
It deserves and every aspect they look at lead us a minute
If you imagine looking out above the Earth’s atmosphere into the dark starry night and imagining the immensity of the universe
Its would be rather
Discomforting to think that we are the only sentient beings out there
I think who would make the universe so much feel like a much more pleasant place if we realize it’s somewhere out there on another
rock orbiting another star
Like our own could be
Another sort of being perhaps similar less perhaps not so similar looking back in our direction and wondering if we existed
Life beyond Earth is today. I have offices more than a certainty a
New science astrobiology is knocking on the gates of the universe once again with more improved technical equipment and greater knowledge
The cosmos will shine then with greater magnificence and man will be amazed once again before this manifestation
After all month why not just might emerge at any moment or in any place and in whatever form you choose
You

100 comments

  1. u have to accept my challeng.wht u think abt my brain stop.i m loaded with everything.plz plz plz i will take earth.i dont need send me out

  2. trust me there will some counrty flag.if not first usa.take good carefully judge a book.be carefull.i m too mad.dam i will take usa first?

  3. neeed a team.i will be the lowest one.be on the first to get but without me its impossible.and for mr its i m possible,……..?

  4. check the key board of ur computer.press shift n press 5 %its all i need dam ass hole white piece of shit?i born in 1990

  5. 06_01_1990 is my date of birth.u all r shit.mission mars complete.i already complete mission sun.so who the fuck u all shit heaD.BULL HEAD CRAPS?

  6. Earth is only one, there are other worlds out there,but we can only get there in another form,not in human form.
    Only when our soul exits our feeble body that we can step out to a different world,it's called BARZAQ

  7. They could just launch 3 separate rockets, for fuel, for transportation back, and for shelter and what ever they need there. Why must they always make everything so hard. They could even build own space station for mars.

  8. Modern humans basicly believe that all that could be Found in on earth and in media is basicly the whole universe while the reallity is that their entire diffrent elements ideas rules chemilas and what not in space in my opinion saying that in space their are people who are as tall as threes and as thin as paper is Just way to down to earth for what really is out there.

  9. WhastApp 00212649050642
    من فضل الله علي حمــدالله رب العالمين أن الفضــل بيد الله يؤتــيــه من يشاء الطب الحديث تـوصلنا لـعلاج القـذف الـسريع و عـــلاج ظعف الإنـتصاب تواصل معانا اعبر الوتساب ☎♞

  10. Solar System falling down

    Falling down

    falling down

    Solar System falling down

    My good babies!

    We don’t know who can us help?

    Can us help?

    Can us help?

    We don’t know who can us help?

    My good babies!

    Let's think teamwise who can help?

    Who can help?

    Who can help?

    Let's think teamwise who can help?

    My good babies!

    Super Hero can us help!

    Can us Help!

    Can us Help!

    Super Hero can us help!

    My good babies!

    Super Hero helped us

    Helped us

    Helped us

    Super hero helped us

    My good babies!

    Solar System is saved now!

    Is saved now!

    Is saved now!

    Solar System is saved now!

    My good babies!

    All together we said: "Thanks!"

    We said: "Thanks!"

    We said: "Thanks!"

    All together we said: "Thanks!"

    My good babies.

  11. (KJV)(Romans 1:19-20) Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath shewed

    it unto them. For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood

    by the things that are made' even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse

  12. Best reason but basically a railgun but modified and we can do a plaintiff won't destroy the object is shooting out or anyone inand at the size range of perfect orbit around the planet that won't go past or out of the orbit

  13. you are my sun shine….my fucking sunshine…..you make me unhappy all day…..now goooo play in traffic and have a lovely day.

  14. After 4 Weeks of Unprotected Sex
    Girlfriend: Hey baby
    Boyfriend: Hey Babe
    Girlfriend: I wanna tell you Something.
    Boyfriend: Umm ok shoot.
    Girlfriend: Please promise me you won't get
    mad.
    Boyfriend: (Got a bit nervous) are you telling or
    not?
    Girlfriend: (Started to cry) I… I… I… I… I
    think… Babe i think i'm pregnant
    Boyfriend: Whaaaaaaaaat?
    Girlfriend: Yeah… I am pregnant i missed my
    period
    Boyfriend: You gotta be kidding right?
    Girlfriend: No babe how can i joke about
    something like this.
    [Boyfriend hangs up the phone… The girl spent ages crying thinking she had lost him for good. After 30 minutes she hears a knock on the door… BOOM it's her boyfriend, kneeling down on the floor]
    Boyfriend: 200 billions stars, 7 continents, 196
    countries, 9 planets, 21 province, 2 capital cities and i have had the privilege of meeting such a sophisticated, intelligent, motivated, beautiful woman like you… Let me correct you…
    You're not pregnant, WE are pregnant…
    We're both responsible for the baby… I will
    support you and our baby. So the love of my
    life…
    Will you marry me?
    Girlfriend: It's not yours.

  15. Yeah, let´s go look for another planet, because the one we have it´s all screwed thanks to us. Honestly we will destroy any plante we step on. Stupid scientists, they sound so optimistic. Bunch of liers.

  16. They always talk about looking for life as we know it but what if theres life as we dont know it. There are environments here on earth that were thought to be to harsh for any type of life to exist but yet we find plenty of life thriving in such extreme conditions hence why we call them extremophiles. So with that knowledge i think there is plenty of life forms in the galaxy/universe on planets we deem uninhabitable playing by a completely different set of rules than what we think life needs to exist

  17. How could you even dare to say that the earth is not exceptional? This is the only home by far for us. Everything we are and will ever be started right here. There will be hoards of earth like planets out there, but there’s only one earth for us. Learn to be respectful before you say the grass is greener on the other side.

  18. Anyone would have to be insane to think and believe that we are the only living humans come on use your common sense people out of ALLLLLL THESE PLANETS and we are the ONLY HUMANS

  19. Will Zubrin volunteer to go or does he want someone else to risk going to MARS ? If its the latter,he should shut up.
    Its essy talking big when it wont be his ass risking everything in luding his life.

  20. Thinking that theres a substitution of Earth makes me feel that we are not special, But I believe that God created the earth with its own uniqueness.

  21. (KJV)(Amos 4:13) For, lo, he that formeth the mountains, and createth the wind, and declareth unto man

    what is his thought, that maketh the morning darkness, and treadeth upon the high places of the earth,
    The LORD, The God of hosts, is his name'

  22. i LIKE THIS I WOULD LIKE TO GO THE eSO PLANETS THOUGH ALL THE CHALLENGES CHRISTOPHER AND OTHERS HAS FACED THIS NOT FEAR RIGHT NOW WE COULD HAVE BEE GONE TO THE EX-SO PLANETS. NOW IT THE TIME TO ACT AS THE PROMISES AND LET THE ENGINEERS WORK…
    AND WE NEED OTHER PLANETS……………..

  23. you have a method to determine if another planet is like Gaia and inside the habilitability zone for humans:))) there are microbes an viruses on Mars from the last nuke/bio/chem war so…dont go inside the nuked craters

  24. "Intelligent life, like us."
    Since we have nothing of higher intelligence to compare it with, ok let's entertain it, but surely in aggregate, humans are not very smart.

  25. (KJV)(John 1:3) All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.
    (KJV)(Romans 1:19-20) Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath shewed
    it unto them. For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood
    by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse_

  26. (KJV)(Hebrews 9:27) And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment

    (KJV)(Revelation 21:8) But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers,
    and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death.
    (KJV)(Romans 6:23) For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord_

  27. Hello! Am swaleh from Africa I reasonable believe that I have all formulae of the universe and all so I can see the infinity .if you are interested .
    Just email me .thank you

  28. How do we know there's really planets out there, for all we know this could be an illusion or a test for real reality

  29. The word 'us' is talking about ETs
    Ge:3:22: And the LORD God said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil: and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever:

  30. Just take a solar panel and video games. Helloo. That would make to much sense wouldn't it… You could take a HDD with thin TV with thousands of videos on it… You could have TV built in… Why would you not have creature comforts…???? There goes boardom right out the window…. how light can they make circuitry these days?? 10 killograms maybe????

  31. I speculate the answer to warming the planet, making it habitable is in the molten core. You have to figure out why the coil, that is the molten core, is not working well enough?

  32. There’s a really decent chance there are more planets than stars….. thanks astronomer Phil Plait, that’s why you get paid the big bucks.

  33. 2:45 "Flocks of other earths"…. he/they haven't found not one single other earth to date 10/19 but he strenuously states it as fact, to convince the incompetent people of such junk science. THUMBS DOWN for broadcasting such nonsense.

  34. -sura 16, verse 12:
    "For you (God) subjected the night and the day, the sun and the moon; the stars are in subjection to His Command. Verily in this are signs for people who are wise."

  35. Think about this: when you imagine yourself in your mind, you can imagine your ideal self. Any possibility is available in your mind. Now notice that time does not exist there (inside your imagination), only space. Now, what does it say? Well, you and I are immortal in our minds with infinite possibilities and realizations. Isn't it beautiful? That's quantum physics. You can actually experience all that quite realistically while lucid dreaming.

  36. And what if all these celestial bodies falling from the sky were in fact spirits of fallen angels…the Bible mention that in the book of apocalypse, how satan and his angel were cast like a big star upon the earth

  37. The rate at which we are destroying this planet is insane. If there are other civilization's in the Universe, they better pray that the human kind does not develop advanced space travel .

  38. planet Earth is a political holding tank!! for two strand DNA! Human being! are war tendencies has kept us on this frequency of existence. its a low vibration!!

  39. a classic soundbite https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4OmWw2WpUx0 and the full interview https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mcMBw5A8wZE

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